Kubernetes版本离线升级(服务器不能访问互联网)

互联网 2022/5/5 23:43:54

一、kubernetes升级概述 kubernetes版本升级迭代非常快,每三个月更新一个版本,很多新的功能在新版本中快速迭代,为了与社区版本功能保持一致,升级kubernetes集群,社区已通过kubeadm工具统一升级集群,升级步骤简单易行。 1、升级kubernetes集群的基本流程 首先来看下升…

一、kubernetes升级概述

kubernetes版本升级迭代非常快,每三个月更新一个版本,很多新的功能在新版本中快速迭代,为了与社区版本功能保持一致,升级kubernetes集群,社区已通过kubeadm工具统一升级集群,升级步骤简单易行。

1、升级kubernetes集群的基本流程

首先来看下升级kubernetes集群的基本流程:

  • 升级主控制平面节点,升级管理节点上的kube-apiserver,kuber-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,etcd等;
  • 升级其他控制平面节点,管理节点如果以高可用的方式部署,多个高可用节点需要一并升级;
  • 升级工作节点,升级工作节点上的Container Runtime如docker,kubelet和kube-proxy。

版本升级通常分为两类:小版本升级和跨版本升级,小版本升级如1.14.1升级至1.14.2,小版本之间可以跨版本升级如1.14.1直接升级至1.14.3;跨版本升级指大版本升级,如1.14.x升级至1.15.x。本文以离线的方式将1.18.6升级至1.19.16版本,升级前需要满足条件如下:

  • 当前集群版本需要大于1.14.x,可升级至1.14.x和1.15.x版本,小版本和跨版本之间升级;
  • 关闭swap空间;
  • 备份数据,将etcd数据备份,以及一些重要目录如/etc/kubernetes,/var/lib/kubelet;
  • 升级过程中pod需要重启,确保应用使用RollingUpdate滚动升级策略,避免业务有影响。

升级注意,不能跨版本升级,比如:

  • 1.19.x → 1.20.y——是可以的(其中y > x)
  • 1.19.x → 1.21.y——不可以【跨段了】(其中y > x)
  • 1.21.x→ 1.21.y——也可以(只要其中y > x)

所以,如果需要跨大版本升级,必须多次逐步升级

2、为什么要升级集群

  • 功能上的更新
  • 软件这些有bug
  • 存在安全隐患

二、Kubernetes 1.18.6 -> 1.19.16升级前准备

1、下载指定版本kubernetes源码

wget https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/archive/refs/tags/v1.19.16.tar.gz 

 解压并进入到kubernetes-1.19.16目录

tar -zxvf v1.19.16.tar.gz && cd kubernetes-1.19.16

2、编译kubeadm

make WHAT=cmd/kubeadm GOFLAGS=-v

检查编译好的kubeadm:

如果需要修改颁发证书过期年限,请参见:Kubeadm颁发证书延迟到10年

3、编译kubelet

GO111MODULE=on KUBE_GIT_TREE_STATE=clean KUBE_GIT_VERSION=v1.19.6 make kubelet GOFLAGS="-tags=nokmem"

检查编译好的kubelet:

4、编译kubectl

make WHAT=cmd/kubectl GOFLAGS=-v

检查编译好的kubectl: 

5、下载并推送指定版本镜像到私有镜像仓库

执行kubeadm config images list命令查看当前kubeadm版本所需要的镜像

[root@m-master126 kubernetes_bak]# kubeadm config images list
I0505 21:46:15.423822   22607 version.go:255] remote version is much newer: v1.24.0; falling back to: stable-1.19
W0505 21:46:16.466441   22607 configset.go:348] WARNING: kubeadm cannot validate component configs for API groups [kubelet.config.k8s.io kubeproxy.config.k8s.io]
k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.19.16
k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.19.16
k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.19.16
k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy:v1.19.16
k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2
k8s.gcr.io/etcd:3.4.13-0
k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.7.0

注意:由于安装kubernetes集群时已经指定了镜像仓库地址和镜像所在项目,所以这里直接把以上镜像推送到镜像仓库指定项目即可,详细步骤不再赘余(不用管上面命令输出的k8s.gcr.io),如果需要修改镜像仓库地址或修改镜像所在项目,请执行如下命令进行修改

kubectl edit cm -n kube-system kubeadm-config

6、升级前对待升级Kubernetes集群进行etcd数据备份

详细步骤参见:定时备份etcd数据

三、kubernetes 1.18.6 -> 1.19.16升级步骤

1、升级主控制平面节点

1)进行主控节点数据备份

备份/etc/kubernetes/目录

tar -zcvf etc_kubernetes_2022_0505.tar.gz /etc/kubernetes/

备份/var/lib/kubelet/目录 

tar -zcvf var_lib_kubelet_2022_0505.tar.gz /var/lib/kubelet/

备份kubeadm、kubelet、kubectl二进制文件

cp /usr/local/bin/kubeadm /usr/local/bin/kubeadm.old #备份
cp /usr/local/bin/kubelet /usr/bin/kubelet.old
cp /usr/local/bin/kubectl /usr/local/bin/kubectl.old

2) 替换主控节点的kubeadm

将编译好的kubeadm二级制文件上传到/usr/local/bin/目录。

3)查看升级计划,通过kubeadm可以查看当前集群的升级计划

[root@m-master126 ~]# kubeadm upgrade plan
[upgrade/config] Making sure the configuration is correct:
[upgrade/config] Reading configuration from the cluster...
[upgrade/config] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks.
[upgrade] Running cluster health checks
[upgrade] Fetching available versions to upgrade to
[upgrade/versions] Cluster version: v1.18.6
[upgrade/versions] kubeadm version: v1.19.16
W0505 21:07:13.750248   12476 version.go:103] could not fetch a Kubernetes version from the internet: unable to get URL "https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable.txt": Get "https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable.txt": context deadline exceeded (Client.Timeout exceeded while awaiting headers)
W0505 21:07:13.750948   12476 version.go:104] falling back to the local client version: v1.19.16
[upgrade/versions] Latest stable version: v1.19.16
[upgrade/versions] Latest stable version: v1.19.16
W0505 21:07:23.758371   12476 version.go:103] could not fetch a Kubernetes version from the internet: unable to get URL "https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable-1.18.txt": Get "https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable-1.18.txt": context deadline exceeded (Client.Timeout exceeded while awaiting headers)
W0505 21:07:23.758400   12476 version.go:104] falling back to the local client version: v1.19.16
[upgrade/versions] Latest version in the v1.18 series: v1.19.16
[upgrade/versions] Latest version in the v1.18 series: v1.19.16

Components that must be upgraded manually after you have upgraded the control plane with 'kubeadm upgrade apply':
COMPONENT   CURRENT       AVAILABLE
kubelet     4 x v1.18.6   v1.19.16

Upgrade to the latest version in the v1.18 series:

COMPONENT                 CURRENT   AVAILABLE
kube-apiserver            v1.18.6   v1.19.16
kube-controller-manager   v1.18.6   v1.19.16
kube-scheduler            v1.18.6   v1.19.16
kube-proxy                v1.18.6   v1.19.16
CoreDNS                   1.6.9     1.7.0

You can now apply the upgrade by executing the following command:

	kubeadm upgrade apply v1.19.16

_____________________________________________________________________


The table below shows the current state of component configs as understood by this version of kubeadm.
Configs that have a "yes" mark in the "MANUAL UPGRADE REQUIRED" column require manual config upgrade or
resetting to kubeadm defaults before a successful upgrade can be performed. The version to manually
upgrade to is denoted in the "PREFERRED VERSION" column.

API GROUP                 CURRENT VERSION   PREFERRED VERSION   MANUAL UPGRADE REQUIRED
kubeproxy.config.k8s.io   v1alpha1          v1alpha1            no
kubelet.config.k8s.io     v1beta1           v1beta1             no
_____________________________________________________________________

此命令检查你的集群是否可被升级,并取回你要升级的目标版本。 命令也会显示一个包含组件配置版本状态的表格。  

说明:

kubeadm upgrade 也会自动对 kubeadm 在节点上所管理的证书执行续约操作。 如果需要略过证书续约操作,可以使用标志 --certificate-renewal=false。 更多的信息,可参阅证书管理指南。

4)升级主控节点组件

kubeadm upgrade apply v1.19.16 --certificate-renewal=false --v=5

注意:此次kubernetes版本升级不需要再重新版本证书,所以需要加上--certificate-renewal=false配置项,另外需要确保待升级集群版本的相关镜像已推送到私有镜像仓库指定项目下。

[root@m-master126 kubernetes_bak]# kubeadm upgrade apply v1.19.16 --certificate-renewal=false --v=5
I0505 22:03:33.208373    8754 apply.go:113] [upgrade/apply] verifying health of cluster
I0505 22:03:33.208622    8754 apply.go:114] [upgrade/apply] retrieving configuration from cluster
[upgrade/config] Making sure the configuration is correct:
[upgrade/config] Reading configuration from the cluster...
[upgrade/config] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'
W0505 22:03:33.239526    8754 utils.go:69] The recommended value for "clusterDNS" in "KubeletConfiguration" is: [10.233.0.10]; the provided value is: [169.254.25.10]
I0505 22:03:33.312112    8754 common.go:168] running preflight checks
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks.
I0505 22:03:33.312151    8754 preflight.go:87] validating if there are any unsupported CoreDNS plugins in the Corefile
I0505 22:03:33.322765    8754 preflight.go:113] validating if migration can be done for the current CoreDNS release.
[upgrade] Running cluster health checks
I0505 22:03:33.328598    8754 health.go:158] Creating Job "upgrade-health-check" in the namespace "kube-system"
I0505 22:03:33.344471    8754 health.go:188] Job "upgrade-health-check" in the namespace "kube-system" is not yet complete, retrying
I0505 22:03:34.416940    8754 health.go:188] Job "upgrade-health-check" in the namespace "kube-system" is not yet complete, retrying
I0505 22:03:35.346623    8754 health.go:188] Job "upgrade-health-check" in the namespace "kube-system" is not yet complete, retrying
I0505 22:03:36.347622    8754 health.go:195] Job "upgrade-health-check" in the namespace "kube-system" completed
I0505 22:03:36.347655    8754 health.go:201] Deleting Job "upgrade-health-check" in the namespace "kube-system"
I0505 22:03:36.362883    8754 apply.go:121] [upgrade/apply] validating requested and actual version
I0505 22:03:36.362936    8754 apply.go:137] [upgrade/version] enforcing version skew policies
[upgrade/version] You have chosen to change the cluster version to "v1.19.16"
[upgrade/versions] Cluster version: v1.18.6
[upgrade/versions] kubeadm version: v1.19.16
[upgrade/confirm] Are you sure you want to proceed with the upgrade? [y/N]: y
[upgrade/prepull] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[upgrade/prepull] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[upgrade/prepull] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
I0505 22:03:38.077681    8754 checks.go:839] image exists: ******:443/**/kube-apiserver:v1.19.16
I0505 22:03:38.114688    8754 checks.go:839] image exists: ******:443/**/kube-controller-manager:v1.19.16
I0505 22:03:38.149041    8754 checks.go:839] image exists: ******:443/**/kube-scheduler:v1.19.16
I0505 22:03:38.182660    8754 checks.go:839] image exists: ******:443/**/kube-proxy:v1.19.16
I0505 22:03:38.217020    8754 checks.go:839] image exists: ******:443/**/pause:3.2
I0505 22:03:38.250097    8754 checks.go:839] image exists: ******:443/coredns/coredns:1.6.9
I0505 22:03:38.250131    8754 apply.go:163] [upgrade/apply] performing upgrade
[upgrade/apply] Upgrading your Static Pod-hosted control plane to version "v1.19.16"...
Static pod: kube-apiserver-m-master126 hash: cf2e8b11fd6311e4b4a75188bcafcbf2
Static pod: kube-controller-manager-m-master126 hash: f21a611aa6f96a5540e12f8e074e3035
Static pod: kube-scheduler-m-master126 hash: 56a16186baf8b51953cc2402e6465243
[upgrade/staticpods] Writing new Static Pod manifests to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-upgraded-manifests248879628"
I0505 22:03:38.261365    8754 manifests.go:42] [control-plane] creating static Pod files
I0505 22:03:38.261379    8754 manifests.go:96] [control-plane] getting StaticPodSpecs
I0505 22:03:38.262157    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "ca-certs" for component "kube-apiserver"
I0505 22:03:38.262169    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "etc-pki" for component "kube-apiserver"
I0505 22:03:38.262174    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "etcd-certs-0" for component "kube-apiserver"
I0505 22:03:38.262178    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "k8s-certs" for component "kube-apiserver"
I0505 22:03:38.266240    8754 manifests.go:135] [control-plane] wrote static Pod manifest for component "kube-apiserver" to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-upgraded-manifests248879628/kube-apiserver.yaml"
I0505 22:03:38.266254    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "ca-certs" for component "kube-controller-manager"
I0505 22:03:38.266260    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "etc-pki" for component "kube-controller-manager"
I0505 22:03:38.266264    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "flexvolume-dir" for component "kube-controller-manager"
I0505 22:03:38.266268    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "host-time" for component "kube-controller-manager"
I0505 22:03:38.266273    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "k8s-certs" for component "kube-controller-manager"
I0505 22:03:38.266315    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "kubeconfig" for component "kube-controller-manager"
I0505 22:03:38.267104    8754 manifests.go:135] [control-plane] wrote static Pod manifest for component "kube-controller-manager" to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-upgraded-manifests248879628/kube-controller-manager.yaml"
I0505 22:03:38.267117    8754 manifests.go:109] [control-plane] adding volume "kubeconfig" for component "kube-scheduler"
I0505 22:03:38.267567    8754 manifests.go:135] [control-plane] wrote static Pod manifest for component "kube-scheduler" to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-upgraded-manifests248879628/kube-scheduler.yaml"
[upgrade/staticpods] Preparing for "kube-apiserver" upgrade
[upgrade/staticpods] Moved new manifest to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml" and backed up old manifest to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-backup-manifests-2022-05-05-22-03-38/kube-apiserver.yaml"
[upgrade/staticpods] Waiting for the kubelet to restart the component
[upgrade/staticpods] This might take a minute or longer depending on the component/version gap (timeout 5m0s)
Static pod: kube-apiserver-m-master126 hash: cf2e8b11fd6311e4b4a75188bcafcbf2
Static pod: kube-apiserver-m-master126 hash: cf2e8b11fd6311e4b4a75188bcafcbf2
Static pod: kube-apiserver-m-master126 hash: cf2e8b11fd6311e4b4a75188bcafcbf2
Static pod: kube-apiserver-m-master126 hash: 0bec5f4dfd3442da288036305e19c787
[apiclient] Found 1 Pods for label selector component=kube-apiserver
[upgrade/staticpods] Component "kube-apiserver" upgraded successfully!
[upgrade/staticpods] Preparing for "kube-controller-manager" upgrade
[upgrade/staticpods] Moved new manifest to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-controller-manager.yaml" and backed up old manifest to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-backup-manifests-2022-05-05-22-03-38/kube-controller-manager.yaml"
[upgrade/staticpods] Waiting for the kubelet to restart the component
[upgrade/staticpods] This might take a minute or longer depending on the component/version gap (timeout 5m0s)
Static pod: kube-controller-manager-m-master126 hash: f21a611aa6f96a5540e12f8e074e3035
Static pod: kube-controller-manager-m-master126 hash: 6ccd91a4d27bfea3dffe8f2c6b0c3088
[apiclient] Found 1 Pods for label selector component=kube-controller-manager
[upgrade/staticpods] Component "kube-controller-manager" upgraded successfully!
[upgrade/staticpods] Preparing for "kube-scheduler" upgrade
[upgrade/staticpods] Moved new manifest to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-scheduler.yaml" and backed up old manifest to "/etc/kubernetes/tmp/kubeadm-backup-manifests-2022-05-05-22-03-38/kube-scheduler.yaml"
[upgrade/staticpods] Waiting for the kubelet to restart the component
[upgrade/staticpods] This might take a minute or longer depending on the component/version gap (timeout 5m0s)
Static pod: kube-scheduler-m-master126 hash: 56a16186baf8b51953cc2402e6465243
Static pod: kube-scheduler-m-master126 hash: 2ac1915cf7a77bd5c2616a0d509132f6
[apiclient] Found 1 Pods for label selector component=kube-scheduler
[upgrade/staticpods] Component "kube-scheduler" upgraded successfully!
I0505 22:03:48.816976    8754 apply.go:169] [upgrade/postupgrade] upgrading RBAC rules and addons
[upload-config] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.19" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
I0505 22:03:48.843028    8754 patchnode.go:30] [patchnode] Uploading the CRI Socket information "/var/run/dockershim.sock" to the Node API object "m-master126" as an annotation
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to get nodes
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
......

[upgrade/successful] SUCCESS! Your cluster was upgraded to "v1.19.16". Enjoy!

[upgrade/kubelet] Now that your control plane is upgraded, please proceed with upgrading your kubelets if you haven't already done so.

升级完查看kube-system下面的Pod,可以发现镜像版本已经替换,下面以查看kube-apiserver为例

 另外,由于升级主控节点时指定了kubeadm不重新颁发证书,下面通过openssl验证下证书是否重新颁发

cd /etc/kubernetes/pki/ && openssl x509 -text -noout -in apiserver.crt

 可以看到没有重新颁发证书。

5)替换主控节点的kubelet

将编译好的kubelet和kubectl二级制文件上传到/usr/local/bin/目录,替换kubelet时需要先停止kubelet服务,替换完kubelet二进制文件后使用如下命令启动新版本的kubelet服务

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart kubelet

6) 替换主控节点的kubectl

将编译好的kubectl二级制文件上传到/usr/local/bin/目录,通过kubectl version命令验证主控节点是否升级成功

至此,master节点版本升级完毕。

注意:此集群为单控制平面节点kubernetes集群,如果管理节点是以高可用的方式部署,升级完主控节点后,其他其他控制平面节点也需要一并升级。

2、升级worker

 

参考:https://v1-20.docs.kubernetes.io/zh/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/kubeadm/kubeadm-upgrade/

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